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He took an ordinary article of life, placed it so that its useful significance disappeared under the new title and point of view — created a new thought for that object. Duchamp later said that he shared and approved of the views expressed in the article, which Beatrice Wood claimed in her autobiography to have written. Importantly, Duchamp was not publicly known as the creator of Fountain at the time, although some of his closest friends such as Walter Arensberg must have known of, and many others suspected, his involvement. On other occasions Duchamp recalled that he bought the urinal at J.

Mott Iron Works Company. Surviving records for the sanitary ware firm are incomplete but show models similar, if not entirely identical, to Fountain see Camfield , p.

Duchamp was fascinated by the problems of representing spatially a fourth dimension, often demonstrated in mathematical texts through diagrams showing the rotation of solids. It is possible that the rotation of the urinal was linked to his broader interest in seeing things quite literally in a new perspective. The intimate nature of the function of the urinal, and its highly gendered character, also resonated strongly with the complex psycho-physical themes of the masterpiece he was working on at the time, The Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors, Even —23 also known as The Large Glass ; see Tate T , although relatively few at the time knew of the unfinished work and, therefore, were able to make this association.

Fountain pen calligraphy - Lucida font - mazicwriter

It was possibly thrown out when Duchamp went to Buenos Aires in , the year that the poet Guillaume Apollinaire wrote an article on the Richard Mutt affair for the Mercure de France. In the early s Duchamp travelled frequently between America and France. He was thought to have abandoned making art, focusing instead on playing chess competitively even while remaining part of artistic circles.

Since so little was published on Duchamp, the article seems to have been based on in-depth conversations with the artist. It was in this period that Duchamp felt the need to consolidate and make more accessible his otherwise dispersed and already partly lost oeuvre. Addressing the growing number of requests from gallerists and museums for works to show, Duchamp authorised a number of replicas of his original readymades, many of which had been lost. He authorised replicas of Fountain in and In the Galleria Schwarz reproduced Fountain , along with other dada-period works by Duchamp, in an edition of eight, fabricating the objects on the basis on the Stieglitz photograph and working closely with Duchamp.

Four further examples were also made at this time, one each for Duchamp and Arturo Schwarz, and two for museum exhibition. For some, such replicas seemed to undermine cardinal qualities of readymades, namely, that they should be mass-produced items and ones chosen by an artist at a particular moment and time. Duchamp, however, was happy to remove the aura of uniqueness surrounding the original readymades, while the production of replicas ensured that more people would see the works and increased the likelihood that the ideas they represented would survive.

Simple in form but rich in metaphor, the work has generated many interpretations over the years, and continues to be seen as a work that challenges — or, at the least, complicates — conventional definitions of art. The committee has decided to refuse to show this thing. I have handed in my resignation and it will be a bit of gossip of some value in New York.


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Camfield commented on this reference to a woman:. Unfortunately, the records of the Society of Independent Artists are of no help here, as most were lost in a fire. In literary historian Irene Gammel claimed that, if a woman was involved in the submission of Fountain , that woman might have Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven — , an eccentric German poet and artist who loved Duchamp and was in turn jealous of him and mildly contemptuous of what she saw as his absorption in fashionable circles see Irene Gammel, Baroness Elsa: Gender, Dada, and Everyday Modernity.

A Cultural Biography , Cambridge, Massachusetts This unsigned work, now in the Philadelphia Museum of Art, was originally thought to be by the painter Morton Schamberg on the basis of his photograph of it, but was reattributed by the scholar Francis M. As Gammel acknowledged, however, there is no contemporary documentary evidence or testimony that points to the involvement of von Freytag-Loringhoven in Fountain. It perhaps should be noted that Duchamp spent much of his life quietly helping many other artists, and any suggestion that he would claim the work of another as his own runs completely counter to the high esteem in which he was held by artist friends.

When he discussed his work with Breton in , it seems improbable that he would have risked claiming Fountain to be part of his oeuvre at a time when so many who had been in New York in and who also knew von Freytag-Loringhoven would have been able to contradict him, had his authorship been in doubt in any way. One such person was Man Ray, who had been on the organising committee of the Society of Independent Artists in and knew von Freytag-Loringhoven. In , however, Man Ray referred in print to the story of Fountain without any qualification in an article he published in View magazine about his long friendship with Duchamp.

To reflect the playful, transatlantic nature of their friendship, Man Ray used enigmatic phrasing that mixed French and English throughout the text. Having found where the piece was hidden, Duchamp had presumably been able to walk out of the Grand Central Palace with Fountain because none of the guards thought it an artwork. Mutt since a plumber made it? Is it not possible?

The telephone number given for the misspelt Richard Mutt was again that of Louise Norton. Fountain tested beliefs about art and the role of taste in the art world. And with 50 miles of rolling hills, endless nature trails and the eight-mile Pink Sand Beach, visitors can choose to do everything or absolutely nothing at all.

The Fountain of Clarity Dreamworld Book 1

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Definition of 'fountain'

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Fountain House Chapel

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The Fountain in the Forest by Tony White

All this unfolds amid the constant attention of the public. Events are complicated by the halftime fireworks, which risk setting off P. After an inevitable altercation they take their seats again in a by now freezing afternoon. His buddies assure her that such kindness is unnecessary, especially when she gets up to leave without taking the blanket.

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