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Presidential letters and memoranda on matters other than tariffs and international trade are sometimes denominated as administrative orders and appear as such in CFR Title 3 compilations see above. CFR Title 3 compilations for the and periods contain the texts of 12 presidential directives denominated as military orders. Ten of them bear the signature of President Roosevelt; the other two were signed by President Truman. These directives appear to have been issued by the President in conjunction with the execution of his duties as Commander-in-Chief and pertain to matters concerning armed forces administration and personnel.

Bush issued a controversial military order on the detention, treatment, and trial, by military tribunals, of noncitizens alleged to be terrorists. Shortly after the creation of the National Security Council NSC in , supporting staff began producing four types of policy papers: basic comprehensive policy statements on a broad variety of national security problems, together with pertinent political, economic, and military implementation strategies; situation profiles of large geographic areas or specific countries; assessments of mobilization, arms control, atomic energy, and other functional matters; and organizational statements on NSC, foreign intelligence, and internal security structure and activities.

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The initial products in the series reportedly were of the geographical type; the first comprehensive policy statement was completed and given NSC approval in November The early NSC policy papers were initiated by the council's members, executive secretary, and supporting staff. Some ideas were also drawn from studies and reports prepared by the State-Army-Navy-Air Force Coordinating Committee, which was subsequently dissolved in However, others, containing policy recommendations, eventually reached the President.

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His signature indicated approval of the proposed policy. By the time President Dwight D.

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Eisenhower took office, approximately NSC papers mandated operative policy. With each succeeding President, national security instruments of varying denominations and character evolved from the NSC policy papers. In general, they were not required to be published in the Federal Register, were usually security classified at the highest level of protection, and were available to the public after a great many years had elapsed, usually at the official library of the President who had approved them.

Many of the more recent ones remain officially secret. The national security instruments of the past several administrations are briefly profiled. Almost any official in the NSC system, from the President on downward, could suggest topics for policy papers.

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In response, a preliminary staff study might be prepared within the NSC Planning Board, a new body composed of assistant secretary-level officers representing agencies having statutory or presidentially designated membership on the council. A first draft, drawn from the preliminary staff study, would be produced by the agency having primary policy interest, followed by various reviews, revisions, and, ultimately, presentation to the President.

Many of them went through major revisions after their initial issuance, some undergoing three or four such overhauls. During the Presidency of John F. Their generation began with a Cabinet official or a senior presidential assistant. This manager coordinated development of a draft position paper with other responsible individuals, often through the use of ad hoc interdepartmental working groups. They were developed through the use of various interdepartmental working groups composed of high level representatives from pertinent agencies.

Bush Administration.

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President Clinton is credited with issuing 75 PDDs. Although President George W. By late November , 59 of these directives had been issued. An oral presidential directive oftentimes is captured in an announcement which records what the President has prescribed or instructed. Such presidential announcements, as in the examples cited, often are recorded in the Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents , a presidential gazette launched in the summer of and published 52 times a year. Presidential findings, as such, initially appeared in the Federal Register and CFR Title 3 compilations as instruments determining that certain conditions of the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of , as amended, had been satisfied and, therefore, sales of agricultural commodities could proceed.

Presidential findings of this type were reproduced in CFR Title compilations as administrative orders. Congress first authorized the President to propose plans for the reorganization of the executive departments and agencies in a statute. A presidential reorganization plan , submitted to Congress, became effective after 60 days unless both houses of Congress adopted a concurrent resolution of disapproval.

Such reorganization authority, renewed periodically a dozen times between and , with slight variations remained available to the President for nearly half a century. At different junctures, qualifications were placed upon its exercise.

The Homeland Directive

For example, reorganization plans could not abolish or create an entire department, or deal with more than one logically consistent subject matter. Also, the President was prohibited from submitting more than one plan within a day period and was required to include a clear statement on the projected economic savings expected to result from a reorganization. Reorganization plans not disapproved by Congress were published in the Federal Register prior to being implemented, and also in the Statutes at Large and the CFR Title 3 for the year in which they became effective.

Modification of the President's reorganization plan authority was made necessary in , when the Supreme Court effectively invalidated continued congressional reliance upon a concurrent resolution to disapprove a proposed plan. Any time during the period of 60 calendar days of continuous session of Congress following the submission of a reorganization plan, the President might make amendments or modifications to it.

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Within 90 calendar days of continuous session of Congress following the submission of a reorganization plan, both houses must adopt a joint resolution which, unlike a concurrent resolution, becomes law with the President's signature for a plan to be approved. Bush , and William Clinton did not request the reestablishment of reorganization plan authority, President George W.

Bush indicated an interest in pursuing its restoration in his FY budget message. An early proclamation, promulgated by President Washington on August 7, , exemplified this latter use of such instruments. Responding to rebellious activities in western Pennsylvania and Virginia in protest of a federal excise tax on whiskey, the President called forth the militia and personally took command. This was done pursuant to statutory arrangements. The issuance of proclamations by the President followed a tradition established by British monarchs and practiced by royal governors in the North American colonies and by their elected successors after the Revolution.

In , the Department of State began to assign identification numbers to both proclamations and executive orders, making a determined, but not totally successful, effort to include previously issued instruments of both types in this accounting. Beginning with this instrument, all subsequent presidential proclamations have been reproduced in CFR Title 3 compilations. For the past 20 years, proclamations have been largely hortative, often being used to declare commemorative occasions.

Although they would continue to claim that they were engaged in 'precision' bombing of military targets, 80 per cent of their bombing missions in the last quarter of relied on radar. Half of their bombs missed the aiming point by more than two miles. Chapter Perspective 6.

The National Homeland Security Consortium. Local Homeland Security Networking Initiatives. The National Association of Counties. The National League of Cities. Conference of Mayors. Homeland Security and Law Enforcement Agencies.

Case in Point: Militarization of the Police. Defining Terrorism: An Ongoing Debate. Combatants, Noncombatants, and the Use of Force. The Pre—September 11 Terrorist Environment. Chapter Perspective 7. September 11, , and the New Terrorism. Religion and Terrorism in the Modern Era. The New Terrorism and Globalization. Asymmetrical Warfare. The Paris Attacks. The Brussels Attacks. Maximum Casualties and the New Terrorism. Netwar: A New Organizational Theory. Policy Options. Countering Extremism. Countering the New Terrorism. Extremism in America. Chapter Perspective 8.

Left-Wing Extremism in the United States. Right-Wing Extremism in the United States. Sources of International Terrorism in the United States. Left-Wing Terrorism in the United States. Generational Rebellion: New Left Terrorism. Civil Strife: Ethnonationalist Terrorism on the Left. Single-Issue Violence on the Left. Right-Wing Terrorism in the United States. Racial Mysticism: Neo-Nazi Terrorism. Patriot Threats.