This book is a guide to how, when, what and why to feed your dog. Do you want to feed your pet dry food, canned food, semi- dry food or raw food Discover the good and bad features of each kind of dog diet and learn all about the raw dog food diet that is becoming more and more popular. It covers what you should feed your dog, what not to feed your dog, feeding your pregnant dog, senior dog and overweight dog.
Read more Read less. Amazon Global Store International products have separate terms, are sold from abroad and may differ from local products, including fit, age ratings, and language of product, labeling or instructions. Any warranty descriptions were intended for US purchasers. No customer reviews. In dogs, energy requirements continue to increase following whelping and into lactation, peaking at approximately weeks.
A diet designed to support the life stages of gestation and lactation should be started prior to breeding and fed to maintain an ideal body condition. To further assist with this goal, queens should be fed free choice throughout these two life stages. Since the need for extra energy and nutrients is relatively small initially for dogs, a gradual increase in amount of energy offered can be started during the second half of gestation. Ad libitum feeding is recommended in dogs during lactation. Following weaning of the offspring, both queens and bitches can be returned to their normal maintenance ration.
Some breeders regularly supplement their bitch's or queen's diet with calcium or calcium-containing foods such as cottage cheese, throughout gestation or lactation. This stems from the theory that the added minerals will ensure healthy fetal development, prevent eclampsia and aid in milk production. In fact, some experts feel that excess supplements during pregnancy may adversely affect skeletal development, result in fetal deformities or problems during growth, and actually increase the likelihood of eclampsia Linde-Forsberg, Assessment of the suitability of the feeding plan for the queen or bitch should be conducted routinely and is done primarily by observation and determination of the health and body condition score of the dam.
Poor or inadequate milk production during lactation may also be reflected in high neonatal mortality rates, poor growth rates and continuous vocalization indicating hunger in the offspring.
- What should I feed my Dog?: Dog Nutrition for Health and Long Life Epub;
- Dieu venge linnocent en silence !: Imana Ihora Ihoze - Théâtre (French Edition).
- The Facts About Dog Nutrition;
- What dogs eat.
Growing cats and dogs. Excessive feeding during growth can lead to obesity and in large breed dogs can result in skeletal problems Hedhammer et al. Studies have demonstrated that controlled, meal feeding of pups leads to a slower growth rate, less skeletal problems, but does not decrease the final mature body size compared to pups fed free choice Hedhammer et al. In kittens, excessive growth rates do not invoke the same consequences as in dogs; however, obesity can become a problem.
Often kittens are fed free choice so monitoring is essential to catch and eliminate any excessive weight gain. At weaning, every growing animal should be fed a complete and balanced diet designed, and preferably tested, for growth or all life stages.
Multiple studies have shown that intact adult pets generally weigh less than neutered animals of the same breed and size Root, ; Duch et al. This is probably a combination of physiological and environmental factors. Owners are generally encouraged to neuter their pets between 6 months and 1 year of age. This time period corresponds to a natural decrease in the animal's growth rate and energy needs.
If owners are not aware of this change, and continue to feed their pet the same amount of food, excess weight gain will result. Increasing age and a change in sexual status are also associated with a decrease in voluntary physical activity. Recent studies have demonstrated that ovariohysterectomy and castration in cats leads to an increase in food intake and weight gain Fettman et al.
There are several steps that an owner can take to prevent weight gain in their pet following neutering. Changing from an ad libitum feeding approach to one in which the food is offered in carefully controlled meals may prevent weight gain. Alternatively, one can consider feeding a diet with a lower energy density. It is important to monitor kittens and puppies frequently during the growth process.
This monitoring is facilitated by the fact that they are visiting the veterinary office frequently during this life stage for check-ups and vaccinations. Puppies and kittens should be weighed and body condition scored at every visit and the diet history form updated. Regardless of the problem, the animal should come back for a weight and body condition score check within weeks to ensure that they are returning to an ideal body condition and growing normally.
15 Tips To Improve Your Dog’s Diet Today
In addition to feeding a diet that is nutritionally formulated to meet the nutrient needs of dogs and cats, probably the most important feeding recommendation for this life stage is to keep animals in a lean body condition. The maintenance of a lean body condition has been proven to increase both the quantity and quality of life in dogs Kealy et al. Currently there is no similar data in cats. One might surmise that by avoiding conditions that contribute to early mortality by maintenance of a lean body condition, one will secondarily contribute to life extension in cats as well.
There exists some controversy regarding whether it is better to feed cats dry compared to canned diets. Proponents of canned food cite the documented increase in water consumption in cats consuming such products Kane, , the possible prevention of urinary tract problems, and the potential voluntary reduction in calories helping to prevent weight gain in cats. Proponents of dry food cite the dental health benefits, the ability to feed ad-libitum thereby more appropriately mimicking the natural pattern of food intake in the cat Kane, , and the esoteric pleasure of consuming food that is crunchy and requires chewing.
Consideration should be given to these variables and the animal's preferences when recommending one type of food over another.
What dogs eat
However, the author recommends exposing young cats to the different food formats to prevent texture preferences that might otherwise limit future diet options. Success of the feeding program can be evaluated based on the animal's maintenance of a lean body condition and an active life style. A diet history should be updated at every visit to maintain historical records on the types and amount of calories fed, in case conditions requiring dietary modification occur in the future.
Frequent alterations in the diet or a significant increase or decrease in food intake may be an early indicator of an underlying problem. Senior cats and dogs.
What should I feed my dog?
Although the concept of aging is difficult to define, most experts agree that aging is not a disease. It is difficult to define old age in dogs and cats. The aging process varies tremendously from individual to individual and is influenced by an animal's breed, size, genetics, nutrition, environment and other factors. As a general rule, larger dog breeds have a shorter life expectancy than smaller breeds and mixed-breed dogs live longer than purebreds of a similar size. The change in energy requirements is also related to changes in body composition. The situation appears to be somewhat different in cats, previous evidence suggested that maintenance energy requirements remained constant throughout adult life Anantharaman-Barr et al.
However, more recent studies suggest that maintenance energy requirements decrease in mature cats compared to younger cats but increase again when the cats became older at approximately years of age Cupp et al. Age related changes in digestiv e physiology, hormones and gut microbiata may directly or indirectly reduce digestive capacity Fahey et al.
Several studies have reported reductions in the digestibility of protein, fat and starch in older cats Taylor et al. Alterations in the immune system associated with age are well recognized Day, Behavioral changes are common in older pets and are a frequently overlooked physiological alteration that may affect the animal's ability, or desire to obtain adequate nutrition. Behavioral changes can be the result of many disorders including systemic illness, organic brain disease, true behavioral problems or cognitive dysfunction syndrome CDS Nielson et al.
Elderly pets have the same nutrient needs as their younger counterparts NRC, However, the quantities per unit of body weight may change, and the way they are provided may require modification. Feeding recommendations for this life stage are not unlike any other life stage in that each animal should be treated as an individual and as a consequence will vary from patient to patient. If an animal's energy needs decrease without a reduction in caloric intake, obesity will develop.
Some diets for mature dogs and cats are designed with higher fiber levels to combat this problem by decreasing the food's energy density. However, not all animals will gain weight as they age, many remain weight stable and a large number will experience varying degrees of weight loss.
This latter population of pets may benefit from more energy dense, palatable diets to help them maintain, or gain weight.
Similar to other life stages, dogs and cats should be fed to maintain a lean body condition through their senior years. The decline in lean body mass that occurs with aging results in a loss of protein "reserves" in the body needed to combat stress and disease. A more recent study fed 8 year old Pointers either The quality of protein is an important consideration.
To reduce bacterial metabolites, the protein should have a high biological value and a high pre-cecal digestibility.
What should I feed my Dog?: Dog Nutrition for Health and Long Life by - roundleterere.tk
Most commercial pet foods are formulated to exceed minimum requirements, so adequate protein is usually not a concern. However, if energy intake is reduced secondary to a decreased metabolic rate, or food intake, the protein to calorie ratio may need to be adjusted to meet the protein requirement.
When I got Francis, she had demodectic mange and looked like an elephant due to her lack of hair. She was a young mother from a puppy mill raid and was so pathetic looking when I took her home. I put Francis on a holistic food and after a year or so, switched her to a raw food diet due to chronic urinary stones. I have had Finnbar since he was a baby. I was an uninformed person thirteen years ago. When it came to feeding my pug, I did what any uninformed puppy owner would do. I put Finn on Purina One puppy formula. Finnbar snored, had a stinky face, suffered from breathing issues and developed arthritis at an early age.
He was young and a mess. When he approached four years of age, I started applying the same basic principals of holistic health that I used on myself and Finnbarr. With a bit of patience, he turned into the healthy little spud he is today. Have you ever considered what is in the water your dog drinks? Tap water and many bottled waters are full of contaminants that a simple water filter can remove. Cysts, heavy metals, chlorine, and pharmaceuticals are just some of the contaminants found in water. These contaminants can affect your dogs skin, coat, and overall health.
Always use a stainless steel or glass bowl for water.
Longevity is all about toxic load. Toxic load can be explained by the amount of toxins you put in your body and how your body processes those toxins. Every time you go to put medicine or different grooming products on or in your dog think about what it is made of. For example, when you are shampooing your pup, make sure that your shampoo is a natural, plant based soap free of sulfites and heavy chemicals.
To me, diet is the key to longevity and a healthy life. What you put in is what you get out. For the beginner, avoid ingredients like wheat, soy, corn, sugar beets, by-products, and generic animal fats such as poultry fat. With any dietary change, make the transition gradually.